A bone marrow transplant is a popular medical procedure used in the treatment of various cancers. It replaces diseased or damaged bone marrow as a result of an infection or side effects of chemotherapy. Bone marrow transplant involves blood stem cell transplants. These cells travel to the bone marrow and produce new blood cells while also promoting the growth of new marrow.
Bone marrow is the spongy, fatty tissue inside your bones, which produces the following components of blood:
Red blood cells are the cells that transport oxygen and nutrients throughout the body.
Infection-fighting white blood cells
platelets, which are in charge of clot formation
A bone marrow transplant replaces the damaged stem cells in your body with healthy cells. This helps your body produce enough white blood cells, platelets, or red blood cells to prevent infections, bleeding disorders, or anaemia.
The patient gets healthy stem cells from his/her own body or a donor. If the bone marrow transplant is due to cancer treatment, the doctor harvests stem cells before the radiation or chemotherapy. Afterward, the doctor preserves healthy cells and uses them in implants.
Why Might You Need a Bone Marrow Transplant?
When a person’s marrow is not healthy enough to function properly, the doctor suggests a bone marrow transplant. Also, it could be a result of long-term infections, disease, or cancer treatments. Some of the reasons for a bone marrow transplant are as follows:
Cancers that affect the marrow are leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma chemotherapy-damaged bone marrow.
Congenital neutropenia- This inherited disorder results in recurring infections.
Sickle cell anaemia- This inherited blood disorder is characterised by misshapen red blood cells.
Thalassemia. This is an inherited blood disorder in which the body produces an abnormal form of haemoglobin.
Types of Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone marrow transplants are of two types. It depends on your condition and disease which one is the best for you. These two types of BMTs are:
Autologous transplants use the person’s own stem cells. They usually involve harvesting cells before beginning a cell-damaging therapy such as chemotherapy or radiation. Following treatment, the doctor then returns the cells back to your body.
This kind of transplant isn’t always possible. In fact, it can only be used if your bone marrow is in good health. However, it reduces the risk of some serious complications, such as GVHD.
On the other hand, Allogeneic transplants involve using a donor’s cells. The donor must be a genetic match with the patient. A compatible relative is often the best option. However, if you do not find a compatible relative, you can find a genetic match through a donor registry.
If you have a condition that has damaged your bone marrow cells, you will need an allogeneic. They are, however, at a higher risk of certain complications, such as GVHD. You will also most likely need to take medications to suppress your immune system so that your body does not attack the new cells. Moreover, this can make you vulnerable to illness.
Surgery and Bone Marrow Transplant
A bone marrow transplant is similar to a blood transfusion in that it does not require major surgery.
Bone marrow cells come from a donor’s bloodstream via a needle in a bone marrow transplant. Then inserted into a bone, typically the pelvic bone.
The infused cells and hematopoietic stem cells both are the same. Also, these help the body produce new blood and immune cells after transfusing them to the patient.
A bone marrow examination will be performed before the start of your bone marrow transplantation. The bone marrow test helps in determining the types of bone marrow cells you need. Your bone marrow doctor will advise you on the best bone marrow test procedure for you.
The bone marrow specialist may administer radiation, chemotherapy, or both. Also, it is performed before the bone marrow transplant procedure.
The conditioning process is performed to suppress your immune system, destroy cancer cells (if you have cancer), and prepare your bone marrow for the new healthy stem cells that will be transplanted. The conditioning process may cause organ complications, fatigue, hair loss, vomiting, cataracts, infertility, mouth ulcers, and diarrhoea.
Patients usually stay in the hospital for three to four weeks after the surgery to allow the bone marrow to recover. In fact, in rare cases, a complication will occur, causing a patient to stay in the hospital for an extended period.
Wrapping the post
Bone marrow transplant is an effective therapy, and to reap its benefits. You should choose the best hospital. Lyfboat helps you locate the best hospital and bone marrow transplant cost in India. Book a live consultation today and get the best treatment from the best doctors without breaking your bank. To read more about our health blogs, please visit our website.